I’ve seen a few bug reports complaining about ‘flicker’ with HDR enabled. It took me a few tries to understand that the users were not actually reporting Z-Thrash (which is what I think of when someone says ‘flicker’, but were actually reporting temporal anti-aliasing of anisotropic meshes like roofs and roads.

Ants are alienating an icy tropical metro what now?!?

Sorry, graphics programmers have lots of big words for things that aren’t actually that complicated.  (Seriously, we call a daytime texture an “albedo”.  Who is Mr. Bedo anyway??)  But basically the issue is this:

  • We have something that appears long and thin on the screen, like the roof of a far off building (wide, but not tall, in pixels) or a road (again, wide, but not tall – a road might be 20 pixels wide but only 1 pixel tall on screen).  Anisotropic just means different lengths in different dimensions, more or less.
  • The road or roof will be rendered in a stair-step manner, as the graphics card tries to approximate a diagonal with pixels.
  • As the camera moves, which pixels form the stair-step will change every frame, causing parts of the road or roof to flicker into and out of existence on a per frame basis.

Going for a Swim

In the old days, this effect used to be called ‘swimming’.  A diagonal line would appear to ‘swim’ as the stair-step pattern changed as the camera changed.  The swimming was annoying, but if you had a lame graphics card, you could live with it.

The problem is that in X-Plane 10, a lot of the meshes we draw are a lot smaller.  As we build more 3-d detail and improve the engine to draw more detail on screen, the result is a lot of really small things.  In X-Plane 9 we could draw 5-10k objects; now we can draw over 75k objects.  That means that individual objects on screen may be 1/10th of their size (since there are more of them).

So instead of having big objects with big triangles that ‘swim’, we have tiny triangles that flicker out of existence entirely.

Anti-Aliasing 101

One reason I haven’t blogged about this before is because there are a ton of different full-screen anti-aliasing technologies out there and the prospect of explaining them was daunting.  Fortunately Matt Pettineo did an awesome job with this post.  Go read it; I’ll wait here.

The main idea is that full screen anti-aliasing draws everything bigger and then down-sizes it to get softer edges.  Diagonals don’t look stair-stepped, and a tiny roof won’t flicker into and out of existence because relative to the larger size that it was drawn, the roof is no longer tiny.  In other words, 4x MSAA makes everything 4x less tiny from a perspective of a triangle being ‘too small to not flicker’.

The second reason why I am getting bug reports about flicker (besides a larger number of smaller triangles) in v10 is that HDR mode doesn’t use conventional MSAA.  For various technical reasons, MSAA works poorly with a deferred renderer, and HDR is a deferred renderer.  So like many games today, X-Plane’s problem is to anti-alias without letting the hardware do it.  If you’re used to 16x MSAA from your graphics card, HDR with no FSAA is a rude surprise.

Current Option Number One: FXAA

FXAA is an anti-aliasing shader written by Timothy Lottes at NVidia.  FXAA is typical of a whole category of anti-aliasing solutions in that it is a post-processing solution – that is, it takes an aliased, jagged image and attempts to smooth out the image after the fact.  (MLAA is also in this category.)

FXAA has a few things going for it that are good:

  1. It’s very fast. The cost of enabling FXAA is very low compared to other anti-aliasing algorithms.
  2. It doesn’t consume any extra memory or VRAM.
  3. It produces smooth diagonal lines, more so than lower-levels of FSAA.

It does, however, have one major down-side: because it doesn’t actually draw the scene at a higher resolution, any mesh that is so small that it is flickering is still small, and thus it will still flicker.  On any given frame, the roof will have no jagged edges, but the roof may simply not exist in some frames.  If the roof isn’t drawn at all, FXAA can’t fix it in a post-process.

So FXAA is fast and cheap and makes still images look nice, but it can’t deal with temporal artifacts, that is, flicker between frames.

Current Option Number Two: SSAA 4X

4x SSAA simply means we draw the entire world at double the resolution in either dimension, and then down-size it later.  Jagged edges become blurred in the down-size and thus aliasing is reduced.  (Nerd note: when technical papers talk about OGSSAA, they mean ordered grid super-sampled anti-aliasing, which just means the image is bigger. 🙂

The up-side to SSAA is that it reduces flicker.  Because the drawn image is bigger, very small elements won’t flicker (since they are bigger when drawn).

The down-side is the cost: 4x SSAA is the same as doubling your screen res in both dimensions.  And if you’ve experimented with monitor resolutions, you know that once you are GPU bound, doubling the resolution in both dimensions uses 4x the VRAM and cuts  your framerate to a quarter of what it was.

So the big problem with 4x SSAA is cost.  Since we’ve improved HDR performance in 10.10r3 I’ve seen more users reporting the use of 4x SSAA.  But it’s not cheap.

Newer, Better Options

I have two new tricks for HDR FSAA that I’m hoping to roll into 10.20.  (They’re new to X-plane; I am sure someone else has coded these things in other games before.)

First: FXAA and SSAA can be used at the same time in the engine, for better quality than either can provide on their own.  SSAA does better at fixing temporal artifacts like flicker (because it makes things ‘4x bigger’ relative to the size at which they flicker) but FXAA does better at making diagonals ‘less jagged’.  Now you can have both.  (10.20 features a newer version of FXAA.)

Second: I realized that our aliasing is anisotropic (there’s that word again) meaning it’s not the same in both directions.  X-Plane’s worst aliasing comes from long thin horizontal screen elements like roads, and roof tops.  Therefore having more anti-aliasing vertically than horizontally is a win.

So rather than just have SSAA 4x (which is twice as big horizontally as vertically) we can now do 2x (only vertical) and 8x (2x horizontal, 4x vertical).  This provides a range of options; 2x SSAA will be affordable to some users who can’t run 4x SSAA at decent framerates.  8x SSAA will provide anti-flicker that should be as similar to non-HDR with 16x MSAA for urban scenes, for those who have a big new graphics card.

I posted a set of technical test pictures here.

What about TXAA?

NVidia has announced a new anti-aliasing technology, called TXAA.  At this point there isn’t enough technical information published about it for me to comment meaningfully on it.  My understanding is that TXAA is not yet available for OpenGL based games.

I can say that in the future we will continue to try to adopt the best anti-aliasing technology we can find, and the problem X-Plane faces (anti-aliasing for a deferred renderer) is not at all unique to X-Plane, so it is likely that there will be good solutions forthcoming.  Far smarter minds are working on this problem at ATI and NVidia as we speak.

About Ben Supnik

Ben is a software engineer who works on X-Plane; he spends most of his days drinking coffee and swearing at the computer -- sometimes at the same time.

14 comments on “A Flicker of Hope for Flicker

  1. Interesting article Ben, but I couldn’t help but notice that there appears to be a bunch on new types of buildings are present in your screenshots. Could this be a glimpse of the new auto-gen? *If* it is then it’s pretty cool to see the fruits of everyone’s labor 🙂

    1. Yeah, um, I’ve got whatever-the-hell interim version of the new autogen happened to be on my hard drive – it might be a month or two old, and is definitely for testing. But yep – Alex has basically been building cities non-stop since we shipped, and he’s accumulated a bunch of OBJs, etc.

  2. Wow, thank you so much for taking the time to fix the issues of AA.
    Ever since XP10 came out I have felt that there was something missing with HDR mode turned on no matter what of the two AA options you picked. Right now however, I have picked FXAA as my default as it looks the best with least amount of frame rate impact.

    I’ll be looking forward to seeing how these new options stack up with hwt we already have. I can already imagine how the sim will look so much better. 🙂

    1. Well, “fix” is a strong word. 🙂 I’m hoping it will be better, but anti-aliasing is always a question of trade-offs, particularly for those without a ton of hardware power.

  3. Funny, just the other day a realized that Lottes’ FXAA-developement is stopped (=dead) and I feared I would be stuck beetween FXAA and 4xSSAA “forever”. 4xSSAA beeing too heavy on frames near detailed scenery (mainly airports like new KJFK – FPS drop from 30 to 12 on my GTX670) and FXAA a dealbreaker at daytime/ with daylight.
    I looked up the photos and FXAA+1×2 looks really promising. Great news!


  4. sounds promising and greatly beneficial nice screen shots too, even if the city images are dated

  5. At KSEA it’s a hit of about 10-20 percent, depending on the viewpoint and daytime. Tested some other airports and it’s quite the same (about 20 percent) except with Frede’s KJFK which I used a lot the last days. Obviously something’s wrong at KJFK. The hit is most apparent when sitting at a gate, taxiing near the terminal – well not your problem.

    Running a 1920×1080 screen at very high texture resolution, no compression (doesn’ t make a difference in performance for me).

    Regards Flo

  6. Well, some more precise info on the KJFK phenomenon anyway: FPS drop with SSAA from 35 to 15 occurs the second the night lightning turns on.


  7. Finally, I have to say I’m happy to read that you guys know about this problem and trying to provide a better fix for it, This is the reason I stopped using xp10, flickering, swimming whatever u want to call it was really annoying, keep in mind I know it will come at a cost but come on, I have 2 systems latest Ivy OC 4.7 with 680GTX, SSD, 16 gigs of ram 2400mhz and another mac pro 12 cores with ATI 5780, and I still can’t have a decent amount of FPS with the options mentioned above turned on. XP10 Overall performance need to improve, to be able to run it smooth, I wish I can get a better computer but It’s not available yet, so people with a lower specs ” Good Luck”
    I know you guys working hard to improve the sim, and so far many updates, but it has a long way to go yet.


  8. I love where x-plane is heading. If I can make a suggestion, is it possible to add some screenshots to the loading screen of x-plane. The blue gets a little boring whilst waiting for the simulation to load. Also in future where can I post suggestions I know this isn’t the correct place.

  9. I think AA will be less relevant sooner more than later. Why?
    I think the next big thing (“new black” if you are not a geek or “new 3D” if you are), will be 4K screens. Why? (again)
    Because we now have more than one 10″ tablets with over-trueHD resolution. We have a new fashion for high DPI that will “spill over” to desktop and laptop monitors. I find it a bit stupid (I think DPI were enough) but anyway the market trend I see will take us there. For me it would be way better to move to full 32bit color-space (excluding alpha channel), to have WAY better gradients. 24bits start showing their age. (coming from a person that used to use monochrome computers and then 8 colors were “beautiful” and Amiga 4096 colors were total bliss)
    Anyway back to my theory. I think by this time next year (or maybe 18 months) we won’t “just” have 4K screens; we will in fact even have some AFFORDABLE 4K screens (TV market pushes too) – and the appropriate gfx cards to drive them. So in that case AA becomes way less important (and way more tough to actually enable).

    1. Temporal aliasing (“swimming”) will still be quite perceptible with big screen resolutions.
      I hope that ultra-high res comes to the desktop monitors soon, this will be a very good step toward lisibility and typography.

      Thanks Ben for the great article. Antialiasing is a very interesting subject.

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