We've seen a few reports (and Philipp has experienced first hand) that X-Plane will crash on startup with the very latest Catalyst drivers that came out last week. The crash appears to only happen if you have a machine with a discrete AMD GPU (e.g. a 7970M) and a built-in GPU on your CPU for low-power use.
We are investigating this with AMD now; in the meantime please use the previous Catalyst driver if you are seeing crashes.
If you have a desktop machine, don't have an AMD card, or are on Mac or Linux this does not affect you.